# NEET Syllabus, Important Topics, Best Books, Preparation Tips | EducationAsia.in

### NEET UG 2021 Syllabus:

#### Physics-

Class 11th - Physical world and measurement, Work, Energy and Power, Laws of Motion, Kinematics, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation, Properties of Bulk Matter, Behavior of Perfect Gas, Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory, Oscillations and Waves.

Physics Class XI Syllabus:

Unit name

Topics Covered in Respective Unit

Physical-world and measurement

1- Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology, and society.

2- Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications

Kinematics

1- The Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed, and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

2- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

3- Unit vectors, Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components.

4- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors, Motion in a plane, Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion, Uniform circular motion.

Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication

Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road)

Work, Energy and Power

Work is done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power

The notion of potential energy, the potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions

Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Centre of the mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and center of mass motion. Centre of the mass of a rigid body; the center of mass of the uniform rod.

Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation, and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions, the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Gravitation

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

Properties of Bulk Matter

Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio, elastic energy.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem, and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, the angle of contact, the excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. The first law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

The second law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

The behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

Equation of a state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, the concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, the law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; the concept of a mean free path.

Oscillations and Waves

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion, Longitudinal, and transverse waves, the speed of wave motion, Displacement relation for a progressive wave, Principle of superposition of waves, the reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

Class 12th - Electrostatics, Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism, Current Electricity, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents, Electromagnetic Waves, Optics, Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation, Atoms and Nuclei, Electronic Devices.

Unit Name Topics Covered in Respective Unit
Electrostatics

1- Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

2- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

3- Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

4- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, the electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.

5- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, the combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator

Current electricity

Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, and mobility, and their relation to an electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference, and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.

Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of the internal resistance of a cell.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

1- Concept of the magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

2- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

3- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. The force between two parallel current-carrying conductors definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter

4- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

5- Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances, with examples.

6- Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

AC generator and transformer.

Electromagnetic waves

Need for displacement current.

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection, and its applications optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-makers formula. Magnification, the power of a lens, a combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism

Scattering of the light- blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation, and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.

Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle

Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarization, plane-polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids.

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only the conclusion should be explained).

Atoms and Nuclei

Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of the nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones

Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays, and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission, and fusion.

Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators, and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). A transistor as a switch.
Atoms No.of Questions Asked (Approx) Weightage in Percentile
Current electricity 1 4
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 0-1 1.5
Electric Charges and Fields 2 8
Electromagnetic induction 2 6
Electromagnetic waves 1 4.5
Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 1 4
Gravitation 0-1 2
Kinetic theory 1 3
Laws of Motion 1 3
Magnetism and Matter 1 2.5
Mechanical Properties of Fluids 0-1 2
Mechanical Properties of Solids 0-1 2
Motion in a Plane 0-1 1.5
Motion in a Straight Line 1 2.5
Moving Charges and Magnetism 1 2.5
Nuclei 0-1 1.5
Oscillations 0-1 1.5
Physical World, Units and Measurements 0-1 2
Ray optics and optical instruments 1 5
Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits 2 6
System of Particles and Rotational Motion 1 5
Thermal Properties of Matter 0-1 2
Thermodynamics 2 9
Wave optics 1 5
Waves 0-1 1.5
Work, Energy and Power 1 4
Total 45 100

Best Books For Physics:

• Concepts of Physics, part 1 and 2 by H C Verma
• Fundamentals of Physics by Halliday, Resnick and Walker
• Objective Physics for medical entrance examination (volumes 1 and 2) by D C Pandey
• NCERT Exemplar Class 11 and 12 by NA
• Physics MCQ by D Mukherjee
Read Here, Last Minute Tips For NEET Aspirant

#### Chemistry-

Class 11th - Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry, Structure of Atom, Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, States of Matter: Gases and Liquids, Thermodynamics, Equilibrium, Redox Reactions, Hydrogen, Some p-Block Elements, Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Techniques, Hydrocarbons, Environmental Chemistry and s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals),

Chemistry XI Syllabus:

Unit Name

Topics Covered in Respective Unit

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry

Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: the concept of elements, atoms, and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry, and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Structure of Atom

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry, and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modern periodic law and long form of the periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, the ideal behavior of gases, empirical derivation of the gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Thermodynamics

The First Law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ?U and ?H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution, and dilution.

The introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for the spontaneous and nonspontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction

Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Redox Reaction

Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

Hydrogen

Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses, and structure;

s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

Group I and group 2 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen, and halogens; uses.

Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:

Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.

Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

Some  p-Block Elements.

General Introduction to p-Block Elements.

Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, the variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, the variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, the anomalous behavior of the first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.

Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses

Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Hydrocarbons

Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion, and pyrolysis.

Alkanes-Nomenclature, the structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes-Nomenclature, the structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation, and acylation; directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in the atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of the ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Class 12th - Solid State, Solutions, Electrochemistry, Surface Chemistry, Chemical Kinetics, General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements, p-Block Elements, d and f Block Elements, Coordination Compounds, Haloalkanes and Haloarenes, Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids, Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen, Biomolecules, Polymers, Chemistry in Everyday Life.

Chemistry XII Syllabus:

Unit Name Topic Covered in Respective Unit
Solid State Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
Solutions Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, the elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
Electrochemistry Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Surface Chemistry Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
p-Block Element

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses

d and f Block Element

General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
Halokanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Alcohols, phenol, Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Biomolecules

Carbohydrates- Classification  (aldoses  and  ketoses),  monosaccharide (glucose  and  fructose),  D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).

Vitamins- Classification and function.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Polymers Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

NEET Chapterwise weightage of Chemistry

Name of the Chapter Number of Question asked(approx) Weightage in Percentile
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 2 4
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 2 4
Bio-Molecules 1 3
Chemical bonding 2 5
Chemical Kinetics 1 3
Chemistry in everyday life 1 2
Coordination Chemistry 4 9
d-and f-block elements 2 4
Electrochemistry 1 2
Environmental Chemistry 1 2
Equilibrium 3 6
General Principles and Process of Isolation elements 1 2
Halo alkanes and Haloarenes; Amines 1 3
Hydrocarbons 1 3
Hydrogen 1 3
N containing Organic Compounds 1 3
Organic chemistry some basic principles and techniques - 1 1 2
Organic chemistry some basic principles and techniques - 2 1 2
p-block elements(13 14) 2 3.5
p-block elements(15 16 17 18) 2 3.5
Periodic table 1 2
Polymers 1 3
Redox reactions 1 3
s-block elements 1 2
Solutions 2 5
States of Matter 1 2
Structure of Atom 1 2
Surface Chemistry 1 2
The Solid State 1 2
Thermodynamics 4 8
Total 45 100

Best Books For Chemistry:

• Physical Chemistry by O P Tandon
• Oxford’s Organic Chemistry by Jonathan Clayden, Nick Greeves,
• Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J D Lee
• MTG’s Objective NCERT at your fingertips by MTG Editorial Board
• Modern’s ABC of Chemistry of Classes 11 and 12 (volumes 1 and 2) by S.P. Jauhar

#### Biology-

Class 11th - Diversity in Living World, Cell Structure and Function, Human Physiology and Plant Physiology

Biology Class XI Syllabus

Unit name Topics Covered in Respective Unit
Diversity in Living World

classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes,  Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

Cell Structure and Function

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,  Golgi  bodies,  lysosomes,  vacuoles;  mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

plant Physiology

Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place;

pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis;   Cyclic   and   non   cyclic   and   photophosphorylation;  Chemiosmotic   hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

Human Physiology

Digestion and  absorption; Alimentary canal and  digestive glands; Role of  digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

Locomotion  and  Movement:  Types  of  movement-  ciliary,  fiagellar,  muscular;  Skeletal  muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.•   Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system- Hypothalamus, Pituitary,  Pineal,  Thyroid,  Parathyroid, Adrenal,  Pancreas,  Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).

(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

Class 12th - Reproduction, Biology and Human Welfare, Genetics and Evolution, Biotechnology and Its Applications, Ecology and Environment.

Biology Class XII Syllabus:

Unit Name

Topics Covered in Respective Unit

Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Genetics and Evolution

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple  alleles  and  Inheritance of  blood  groups,  Pleiotropy; Elementary idea  of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Biology and Human welfare

Health  and  Disease;  Pathogens; parasites  causing  human  diseases  (Malaria,  Filariasis,  Ascariasis.Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

Biotechnology and its application

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patent

Ecology and Environment

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services- Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of  Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

NEET Chapterwise weightage of Biology:

Name of the chapter Number of questioned asked (Approx) Weightage in percentile
Anatomy of Flowering Plants 0-1 2
Animal Kingdom 2 7
Biodiversity and Conservation 1 3
Biological Classification 0-1 2
Biomolecules 1 4
Biotechnology and its Applications 1 3
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes 0-1 1
Body Fluids and Circulation 0-1 2
Breathing and Exchange of Gases 0-1 2
Cell Cycle and Cell Division 0-1 2
Cell: The Unit of Life, Biomolecules 0-1 2
Chemical Coordination and Integration 1 4
Digestion and Absorption 1 3
Ecosystem 0-1 2
Environmental Issues 0-1 2
Evolution 0-1 2
Excretory Products and their Elimination 0-1 2
Human Health and Disease 1 3
Human Reproduction 1 3
Locomotion and Movement 0-1 2
Microbes in Human Welfare 0-1 2
Mineral Nutrition 0-1 1
Molecular Basis of Inheritance 2 6
Morphology of Flowering Plants 1 5
Neural Control and Coordination 0-1 2
Organisms and Populations 0-1 2
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants 0-1 2
Plant Growth and Development 0-1 1
Plant Kingdom 1 4
Principles and Inheritance and Variation 1 5
Reproduction in Organisms 0-1 1
Reproductive Health 0-1 2
Respiration in Plants 0-1 1
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 1 5
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 0-1 2
Structural Organisation in Animals 0-1 2
The Living World 0-1 2
Transport in Plants 0-1 1
Total 90 100

Best Books For Biology:

• Objective Biology (volumes 1 & 2) by GR Bathla
• Biology Classes 11 and 12 (Volume 1 & 2) by Pradeep Publications
• Objective Biology (Volume 1, 2, and 3 along with Practice Papers) by Dinesh Publications
• Objective Biology (volumes 1 and 2) by Trueman Publications
• A Class Book for Botany by A C Dutta