 # GATE 2021 Exam Pattern for ECE

11Feb,2021
By Editorial

GATE 2021 syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) branch is released by the officials of IIT Bombay. Before start preparing for GATE ECE, the aspirants must be aware of the GATE syllabus for ECE in order to start their preparation. The GATE 2021 syllabus for ECE is almost the same as the 3rd to 8th-semester Electronics and Communications Engineering syllabus. So, the students who are through in engineering syllabus properly can easily crack the GATE 2021 examination. #### Highlights of GATE 2021 Exam Pattern

Exam Mode Online 65 100 MCQs, MSQs, and NAT 3 (General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics* and Subject Specification Section) In place of Engineering Mathematics, Chemistry will be compulsory for Life Science (XL) Paper. In XH Reasoning & Comprehension will be compulsory subjects General Aptitude: 15 Marks + Subject Questions: 85 Marks = Total: 100 Marks General Aptitude: 15 Marks + Engineering Mathematics: 13 Marks + Subject Questions: 72 Marks = Total: 100 Marks 3 Hours (180 Minutes) No

GATE 2021 for ECE paper consists of 3 sections – General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Subject-specific section. The GATE syllabus for ECE subject-specific section covers topics from Networks, Signals and Systems, Electronic Devices, Analog Circuits, Digital Circuits, Control Systems, Communications, and Electromagnetic.

• There will be a compulsory section, Engineering Mathematics questions carrying 13% of the total weight (13 Marks).
• The questions based on the subject of the exam, Electronics & communication have 72% of the total weight (72 Marks).
• The remaining part 15% of the GATE Question Paper includes the General Aptitude question. (15 Marks).

### Detailed Syllabus for GATE 2021 ECE:

#### Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence, and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, solution of linear equations- existence and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface, and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher-order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using a variation of parameters, complementary function, and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.

Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's, and Stokes' theorems.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability.

#### Section 2: Networks, Signals, and Systems

Circuit analysis: Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady-state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC, and RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform. Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation, Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications.
Discrete-time signals: DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.

#### Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct, indirect band-gap semiconductors
Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photodiode, and solar cell

#### Section 4: Analog Circuits

Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, and rectifiers. BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, ac coupling, small-signal analysis, frequency response. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers.
Op-amp circuits: Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers, and oscillators.

#### Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number representations: binary, integer, and floating-point- numbers. Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates, and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers,
decoders.

• Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.
• Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs, and DACs. Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM.
• Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and the control unit, instruction pipelining.

#### Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

#### Section 7: Communications

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems. Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers.
Information theory: entropy, mutual information, and channel capacity theorem.
Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR, and BER. Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.

#### Section 8: Electromagnetics

Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector.
Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth. Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart. Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.

#### The Most Important Topics for GATE EC (Electronics and Communication Engineering)

Though there will be questions based on aptitude and mathematics, this paper has the maximum weightage of questions based on the branch subject. The important topics for the preparation of technical questions asked in the GATE EC Exam are given below:

• Analog Circuits
• Network Theory
• Communication Systems
• Electromagnetic Theory
• Signal and Systems
• Control Systems

Read also : What is Electrical and Communications Engineering (ECE) Course?