Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms.
Genetic engineering is the process by which scientists modify the genome of an organism. Creation of genetically modified organisms requires recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is a combination of DNA from different organisms or different locations in a given genome that would not normally be found in nature.
In most cases, use of recombinant DNA means that you have added an extra gene to an organism to alter a trait or add a new trait. Some uses of genetic engineering include improving the nutritional quality of food, creating pest-resistant crops, and creating infection-resistant livestock.
Genetic Engineering is concerned with deliberate manipulation of the genetic material (DNA) of a living organism by artificial methods. The study of genetic engineering involves insertion of new genetic material at an unspecified location in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence containing the required genetic elements for expression, and then inserting this construct into the host organism.
Genetic Engineering is also concerned with developing hybrid varieties of plants, making plants disease resistant. Genetic engineering techniques are used in research, biotechnology, and medicine.
To pursue undergraduate course in genetic engineering, candidates should be 10+2 pass in science stream from recognized board examination. Most colleges offer admission on the basis of marks obtained in Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) and All India Engineering/Pharmacy/Architecture Entrance Examination (AIEEE).
To pursue postgraduate course in genetic engineering, candidates should be B.E / B.Tech in genetic engineering from recognized University. Candidates should have valid GATE score.
Bachelor of Engineering in Genetic Engineering
Bachelor of Technology in Genetic Engineering
Master of Engineering in Genetic Engineering
Master of Technology in Genetic Engineering
Bachelor of Science in life sciences with genetics as optional subjects
Population, quantitative and ecological genetics
Job Prospects :
Genetic Engineering graduates find opportunities in medical and pharmaceutical industries, agriculture, research and development departments of government and private organizations. The Institute of Genomic and Integrative Biology, Delhi; Biochemical Engineering Research and Process Development Centre, Chandigarh; The Centre for DNA Fingerprint and Diagnostics, Hyderabad; and The National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi are some of the major organizations where Genetic engineering graduates are sought.
The pay package offered for genetic engineers is comparatively higher than other engineering graduates. They are offered a monthly salary of Rs.20, 000 to 30,000 in public sector and even higher in private sector.