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Orthopaedics is a medical speciality that focuses on the diagnosis, correction, prevention, and treatment of patients with skeletal deformities - disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves and skin. The musculoskeletal system includes bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons and nerves. The physician who specializes in this field is called as Orthopaedic surgeons. They use both surgical and non-surgical methods to treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Various disorders like Dislocations and Fractures, Arthritis and osteoporosis, Tendon injuries, pulled muscles, unequal leg lengths, Bone tumours, clubfoot are treated by Orthopaedic surgeons.
The word 'orthopedic' is the fusion of two Greek words: 'orthos,' meaning straight or correct, and 'paideia', meaning raising of children because many orthopedic patients are in fact children so the French physician Nicholas Andry combined the terms to form the French 'orthopaedic,' which was later translated into English. Jean-Andre Venel established the first orthopaedic institute in 1780, which was the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities. He is considered to be the father of orthopaedics.
The areas of expertise in orthopaedics comprise spine injury, orthopaedic trauma, hand surgery, paediatric orthopaedics, surgical sports medicine, elbow and shoulder surgery, musculoskeletal oncology, total joint reconstruction as well as foot and ankle surgery. On the other hand, this stream has a great scope because it deals with a number of ailments like unequal leg length, clubfoot, sprains and strains, torn ligaments, pulled muscles, bursitis, tendon injuries, sciatica and scoliosis. Furthermore, it treats low back pain, ruptured disks, bow legs, knock knees, hammer toes, bunions, osteoporosis, arthritis, bone tumours, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, dislocations, fractures as well as abnormalities of toes and fingers.


Orthopedics is the postgraduate level of education and can be pursued only after the completion of MBBS. So the steps involved in the process of becoming an Orthopaedics surgeon are as follows-

  • First of all, students are required to pass 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects.
  • To take admission in MBBS programme, students are required to appear the entrance test namely NEET.
  • Earn MBBS degree from a well-recognized medical institution.
  • Appear the entrance tests like JIPMER PG, AIIMS PG, NEET PG for taking admission in MD/MS course.
  • Choose orthopedics as a specialization in MD/MS.
  • Candidates seeking admission in doctorate level course, are selected on the basis of performance in the qualifying examination and entrance exam. Various Institutions conduct their own entrance test for admission doctoral level courses.

Orthopedics has ample number of Diploma & Certificate Courses too. Some of these are as follows-

  • Diploma in Orthoptics
  • Diplomate of the National Board of Medical Exam in Orthopaedics
  • PDCC (Neuro & Ortho Anaesthesiology)
  • PG Diploma in Orthopaedics – D.Ortho.



Any aspirant wants to become a professional in orthopaedics should have good stamina, service to mankind mentality, patience, self-confidence, friendliness and emotional stability. Decision-making ability, analytical mind, concentration and good memory too. In addition to these a good doctor should have the ability to deal with young patients( children) with love and the ability to understand their behavior, Good communication skills and keen observation and playful manner around children.



The career development path for the orthopedic specialists is very bright. There are lots of job opportunities in government, private and public sector. Degree holder candidates may appear for Combined Medical Service examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), Government of India for entry into central services. The services provided under UPSC are such as railways, ordnance Factories Health Service, Central Health Service and Municipal Corporation of Delhi.  The state, provincial service examination is organized by the state, provincial service commission (SPSC) for admission into state services. Other job areas are-

  • Government Hospitals
  • Private Hospitals
  • Own Health Care
  • Research centres
  • Medical Health Centre
  • Rehabilitation centres
  • Sports Medicine Physician
  • Orthopedic distributors for surgery and musculoskeletal Products
  • Physical Therapist



  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, [AIIMS] New Delhi
  • King George's Medical University, [KGMU] Lucknow
  • Armed Forces Medical College, [AFMC] Pune
  • Maulana Azad Medical College, [MAMC] New Delhi
  • Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, [VMMC] New Delhi
  • Stanley Medical College, [SMC] Chennai
  • Goa Medical College and Hospital, [GMCAH] North Goa
  • Government Medical College, [GMC] Kottayam



  • Essential Orthopaedics by Maheshwari
  • Orthopedics Quick Review by Apurv Mehra
  • Gopalan’s Evidence Based Orthopaedic Principles – A Sicot India Initiative by Hitesh Gopalan
  • Practical Orthopedic Examination Made Easy by Manish Kumar Varshney
  • Miller’s Review of Orthopaedics by Miller
  • Surgical Exposures In Orthopaedics  by Hoppenfeld