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Course Details


Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. The term ophthalmology originated from the Greek words ophthalmos which means “eye” and logos which means “word.” This literally means the “science of eyes.” People refer to a certified doctor for this science as an ophthalmologist. An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who diagnoses and treats eye disease, which includes performing eye surgery. Ophthalmology is a fairly broad field that combines surgery and medicine. Ophthalmologists diagnose and treat eye diseases in both children and adults. Sub-specialties include cataract and refractive surgery, uveitis and ocular immunology, ophthalmic plastic surgery, ophthalmic pathology and neuro-ophthalmology. Coursework covers the entire spectrum of eye care, including the prescription of glasses and contact lenses, medical treatment and complex microsurgery.   There are various eye doctors but they have different specializations. Here are some pointers to identify them:


  • People refer to practitioners licensed to provide the appropriate corrective lenses for its patient as opticians. It may be in the form of eyewear or contact lenses. They analyze the data provided by the specialized medical eye equipment, optometrist or ophthalmologist to provide the right corrective lenses. Opticians cannot diagnose or cure eye illness.


  • Optometrists are eye care professionals who are licensed to diagnose vision problems of their patients. Opticians often get their prescriptions for accurate corrective eyewear. However, they are only limited to remedy the problem through eyeglasses, contact lenses, and eye exercises.


  • Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who are authorized to diagnose and treat eye problems or diseases. Their scope goes beyond providing corrective lenses, they are also permitted to prescribe medicines and perform surgery for eye diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and cataract.



Ophthalmology is the postgraduate level education and can be pursued only after the completion of MBBS. So the steps involved in this process are as follows-

  • First of all students are required to pass 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects.
  • To take admission in MBBS programme, students are required to appear the entrance test namely NEET
  • Earn MBBS degree from a well-recognized medical institution.
  • Appear the entrance tests like JIPMER PG, AIIMS PG, NEET PG for taking admission in MD/MS course.
  • Choose your desired branch as a specialization in MD/MS.
  • Candidates seeking admission in doctorate level course, are selected on the basis of performance in the qualifying examination and entrance exam. Various Institutions conduct their own entrance test for admission doctoral level courses.



Human values and humanities don’t come with educational degrees. Though these doctors deal with humans at their most crucial stages so they should possess certain qualities like patience, politeness, ability to build harmonious relationship with their patients, strong ethics, service mentality, self-motivation, understanding etc. In addition to these a good doctor should have the ability to deal with young patients( children) with love and the ability to understand their behavior, Good communication skills and keen observation and playful manner around children.



Ophthalmologists have multiple career options. Central and state governments recruit ophthalmologists for hospitals run by them. Departmental hospitals run by Railways and Defence and hospitals run by PSU are also a good option available to ophthalmologists. However most of the ophthalmologists prefer private hospitals, nursing homes and clinics because of high pay packages. Experienced ophthalmologists also can start their own eye-clinics. Some of them also can work with NGOs, missionary hospitals and charitable hospitals. Highly qualified and experienced ophthalmologists can work as faculty in government and private medical colleges. They also can involve themselves in research activities of organizations like ICMR.



  • Government Medical Colleges, Thiruvanantapuram
  • Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kochi
  • All India Institutes of Medical Science, New Delhi
  • The Manipal University, Manipal
  • Rajahmuthiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Annamalai University, Annamalainagar
  • Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University
  • Varanasi and Christian Medical College, Vellore.



  • The Wills Eye Manual
  • The Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC)
  • Friedman's Review of Ophthalmology
  • Nerad: Techniques in Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery
  • Last Minute Optics
  • Chern: Review Questions in Ophthalmology
  • Chang: Phaco Chop and Advanced Phaco Techniques
  • Cornea: Krachmer, Mannis, Holland
  • Ryan's Retina